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Most references to "the Census" pertain to the decennial Census and the American Community Survey, which compile demographic and housing information about the U.S. population. Three other censuses, conducted by the U.S. government every five years, focus on collecting economic data.
Census of Agriculture
Collects data on number and size of farms and ranches, costs of production, value of products and selected characteristics of the owners.
Collects data on size and number of business establishments, number of employees, sales, shipments, receipts, payroll, and whether women or minority owned.
Census of Governments
Collects data on state and local governments. Data collected includes number and types of governments, number of employees and payroll, budgets and revenues, and fiscal relationships between governments.
From Kelly L. Smith (UC San Diego) Census Research Guide. Used with permission.