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Systemic Racism: Racism in Real LIfe


An action or statement that may seem innocuous but is considered by a person or people belonging to an oppressed group to be harmful because it displays racist, sexist, or otherwise bigoted attitudes and assumptions.

("microaggression." The American Heritage(R) Dictionary of the English Language, edited by Editors of the American Heritage Dictionaries, Houghton Mifflin, 6th edition, 2016.)

Stereotypes & Tokenism

Ethnic and racial stereotypes are simplistic, often negative, generalizations ascribed to ethnic/racial/national groups and members based on perceived cultural deficiencies and characteristics.

(Nguyen-Perez, Raul. "Ethnic and Racial Stereotypes." Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice, edited by Sherwood Thompson, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1st edition, 2014.)

Tokenism is the policy or practice of granting only perfunctory concessions or accommodations, particularly to minority groups.

(Thompson, S. (2014). Tokenism. In S. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity and social justice. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.)


Colorblindness is the racial ideology that posits the best way to end discrimination is by treating individuals as equally as possible, without regard to race, culture, or ethnicity (Williams, 2011).